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2014 / 4

Вид издания:  Сборник статей

Год издания:  2014

NATURE

General Problems of Nature Management

International Standard for the System of Integrated Environment and Economic Accounting

A.D. Dumnov, Dr.Sc. (Economy), the National Information Agency «Natural Resources», A.E. Kharitonova, the degree-seeking student, the Department of Statistics and Econometrics, the Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Agricultural Academy

At the 43rd session of the UN Statistical Commission (February 28 – March 2, 2012) were discussed issues of further development of the System of Environmental and Economic Accounting, SEEA. When this was approved and adopted as an international standard manual – Central Framework, representing compact guide on the practical implementation of this system. This document was translated into Russian authors of this article. Brief analysis of materials Central Framework is presented in this article.

Keywords: Central Framework of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA), international standard, system of national accounts (SNA), physical and monetary supply and use tables, assets tables (accounts), adjustment of the SNA aggregates, reflecting the dynamics of natural resources, environmental management and environmental protection.

Mineral Resources

Forecast Resources, Stocks, Extraction and Quality of Underground Waters of Russia

S.L. Pugach, Cand. Sc. (Geology), S.V. Spektor, Cand. Sc. (Geology), the Federal State Unitary Enterprise «Gidrospecgeologia»

Underground waters are one of sources of water supply and one of the major mineral resources. In the Russian Federation in a high level of contamination of many surface water bodies fresh underground waters are quite often unique source of maintenance of the population the quality potable water, protected from pollution. The satisfaction of current and perspective requirements of the population of Russia in qualitative potable water gets the increasing social and economic value.

Keywords: underground waters, resources and stocks of underground waters, use of underground waters for various needs, an exhaustion of deposits of underground waters, pollution of underground waters, protection of underground waters

Water Resources

Water Resources – International Management Experience

V.A. Duhovny, Prof.- Dr.Sc. (Enginer.), the Scientific-Information Center, the Interstate Coordination Water Commission, the Republic of Uzbekistan, E.D. Samotesov, V.A. Omelyanenko, the National Information Agency «Natural Resources»

In the article was done a comparative analysis of the experience of water management in foreign countries. There are highlighted the importance of integrated water resources management, presented the effectiveness of water management systems in different countries.

Keywords: integrated water resources management, river basin organizations, water users

Land Resources and Soils

Degradation of ameliorating soils in Russia as resulted from changes in their water regime and methods of protection

F.R. Zaidelman, Prof.- Dr.Sc. (Agricul.), the Department of Physics and Soil Melioration, the Faculty of Soil Science, the Moscow State University

The article describes episodes of degradation of ameliorating soils in Russia and adjacent countries as resulted of the anthropogenic changes in their water regime. It revealed the cause of this negative appearance and developed a system of their diagnostics. It proposed recommendations on soil protection from degradation phenomena and destruction. It detailed the causes of the degradation of chernozems as a result from their waterlogging; examined the pyrogenic factors causing ignition of drained peat areas, compaction structural fertile alluvial soils in the valleys and degradation changes of many other soils as a result of anthropogenic transformation of their hydrological regime.

Keywords: degradation, water regime, waterlogging of soils, fires peat lands, compaction of structural soils of floodplains.

Forest Resources

Projections of forest carbon sinks up to 2050 and input of forest sector to national commitments of the Russian Federation in future climatic agreement (The continuation. The beginning in the bulletin № 2, 2014)

D.G. Zamolodchikov, Dr.Sc. (Biology), the Biological Faculty, the Moscow State University, V.I. Grabovsky, Can.Sc. (Biology), the Centre for Ecology and Productivity of Forests, the Russian Academy of Science (RAS)

The projection of forest carbon balance up to 2050 was received using Canadian model CBM-CFS3. The model estimation of forest carbon sink for current period was 270 Mt C/year. If current levels of forest felling and fires will not change, the forest carbon sink will decrease to 100 Mt C/year in 2050. The reason is related with an increase of mean forest age. Increase of forest felling level will lead to more rapid decrease of the forest carbon sink. Key features of forest sinks accounting in first and second period of Kyoto protocol are discussed. Some of these features can be applied to the future climatic agreement. The forest sector of Russia in 2021–2030 will be annual carbon sink 65–200 Mt C depending from actual forest felling level and accepted accounting variant. This carbon sink is equivalent 7–22% from national green house gases emissions in base 1990 year.

Keywords: forest sector, carbon balance, greenhouse gases, projection, modeling, forest felling, climatic agreements, national commitments

Biological Resources of Land

Agrolandscape-Ecological Zoning of Natural Grazing Land in the European Part of Russia

I.A. Trofimov, Dr.Sc. (Geograp.), L.S. Trofimova, Can.Sc. (Agricul.), E P. Yakovleva, The All-Russian Williams Fodder Research Institute

There are presented results agrolandscape-ecological zoning of natural grassland of the European part of Russia on natural economic areas, indicating the number of allocated areas, provinces and districts. The lands and their structure, areas of hayfields and pastures on natural economic areas are described too. Qualitative assessment of hayfields and pastures was done.

Keywords: the European part of Russia, natural-economic region, zoning, natural grasslands, pastures and hayfields assessment.

Water Biological Resources

Prospects for the Development of Sturgeon Farms in the Caspian Sea

V.I. Kashin, the Academician, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the State Duma Committee on Natural Resources, Environment and Ecology

According to the materials of the speech of V.I. Kashin, the Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Natural Resources, Environment and Ecology, the Academician of RAS, 29 October 2014 at the enlarged meeting of the Scientific Council of the All- Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIIRO) on the development of fish farming.

Keywords: aquatic biological resources, sturgeon, sturgeon farming, sturgeon breeding, sturgeon species.

Recreational Resources

Analysis of the Indicators for Provider Function of Protected Areas

V.V. Snakin, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Biology), E.V. Eskov, G.V. Mitenko, Y.V. Ospennikov, the Moscow State University (the Earth Sciences Museum), the Institute of Basic Biological Problems, the Russian Academy of Sciences

Based on the recommendations of UNESCO for the implementation of quantitative assessment of provider functions (ecosystem services) of protected areas (Seville Strategy for Biosphere Reserves; Durban) there were analyzed possible indicators of such an assessment for a some nature reserves. Also there was drawn attention to the prospects of using the considered indicators for assessing the effectiveness of specific protected areas in maintaining the ecological balance in the surrounding region.

Keywords: protected areas, the provider functions of protected areas, ecosystem services, nature protection, nature conservation, human health, ecological balance

Environmental Protection

Technology surface hardening of replacement parts and environmental effectiveness

V. K. Zagorski, Dr.Sc. (Engin.), Y.V. Zagorski, Cand.Sc. (Engin.), the Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, I.C. Kusova, Cand.Sc. (Engin.), the Ufa State Aviation Technical University

In the article are brought results of R&D and industrial implementation of technology surface hardening replacement parts electric arc method. On the example of intensive wear finger scoop chain dredgers the prospects for technical and environmental effectiveness of the implementation of high technologies.

Keywords: technology surface hardening replacement part, environmental protection, heavy metal, nanostructures, nanopowders, clusters, quantum dots, fullerenes, poisons, toxicity, mutation, metabolism.

Climatic Resources

Climate change and its consequences in the Russian Federation

V.M. Kattsov, Dr.Sc. (Phys.-Mat.), the Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, S.M. Semenov, Dr.Sc. (Phys.-Mat.), the Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Roshydromet and the Russian Academy of Sciences, A.V. Frolov, Can.Sc. (Geograp.), Roshydromet

The article presents the main results of «The Second Assessment Report on Climate Change and its Consequences in the Russian Federation» prepared large by a team of leading scientists and specialists of scientist institutions of Roshydromet, the Russian Academy of Sciences and higher educational institutions.

Keywords: climate change, temperature, atmospheric condensation, atmospheric circulation, impact of climate change, permafrost, adaptation

AUTHORITIES AND NATURE

In the Presidential Administration

In the Federal Assembly

In the Government

NATURE AND HUMAN SOCIETY

Anniversaries

To the 80th anniversary of the Academician Vladimir Nikolayevich Bolshakov

The 100th anniversary of foundation of CNFP

V.S. Chesnokov, Can.Sc.(Econom.), the Comission on Scientific Heritage of the Academician V.I. Vernadsky, the Russian Academy of Sciences

The article is devoted to the 100th anniversary of the Commission on Study of the Natural Forces Productives (CNFP), it contribution to the development of the forces productives of Russia.

Keywords: V.I. Vernadsky, development of natural forces productives.

The 100th anniversary of foundation of the State Research Institute of Lake and River Fisheries (Gosniorkh)

International Cooperation

Session of the International Whaling Commission

V.Y. Ilyashenko, Cand.Sc. (Biology), the Commission of the Russian Federation in the IWC

Human Society and Nature

Significance of the ecological factors in formation of public health

I.A. Sosunova, Prof.-Dr.Sc. (Sociolog.), the Vice-president, the Russian Society of Sociologists

In this article highlights the problems of significance of the ecological factors in formation of health of contemporary person. Theoretical results are justified by empirical researches data.

Keywords: ecology, environment, ecological factors, health.

Calendar of Events

International, national and regional scientific and technical meetings, conferences, symposia, meetings, seminars, schools and exhibitions of natural recourse and environmental protection orientation (November, 2014)

Бюллетень

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